Effect of resin infiltration on white spot lesions after debonding
Shaza M. Hammad, phd, Mai ElBanna, phd, Inas ElZayat, phd, Mohamed Abdel Mohsen, phd
Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the effect of application of a resin infiltration material on masking the white spot lesions (WSLs) after bracket removal. Methods: 18 patients participated in this study and were divided into two groups of nine patients each; by a visual score based on the extent of demineralization, according to the classification of the WSLs. Group 1: Visible WSLs without surface disruption and Group 2: WSLs showed a roughened surface but not requiring restoration. Three successive photographs were taken for every patient; immediately after bracket removal, 1 week after oral hygiene measures and after Icon material application. The JPEG images were imported into image analysis software (Image J version 1.33u for Windows XP, US National Institutes of Health) which presented the images into histograms of gray scale from (0 to 255). Initial and final images were compared for percentage of WSLs masking area. Results: For both groups, a statistically significant difference at P< 0.05 was obtained as follows; for WSLs in Group 1, the means at gray scale for the initial and the final photographs were 126.091 ± 13.452 and 221.268 ± 9.350 respectively and they revealed significance by Wilcoxon’s signed rank test = 0.038, P< 0.05. For WSLs in Group 2, the means at gray scale for the initial and the final photographs were 95.585 ± 20.973 and 155.612 ± 31.203 respectively and they revealed significance by Wilcoxon’s signed rank test = 0.029, P< 0.05. (Am J Dent 2012;25:3-8).
Mail: Dr. Shaza M. Hammad, 60 El Gomhoria Street, Mansoura, Dakahlia, 35516, Egypt. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Choong-Ho Choi, dds, phd, Myung-Ok Ha, msd, Hye-Jeong Youn, phd, Seong-Soog Jeong, ms,
Youichi Iijima, dds, phd, Woosung Sohn, dds, phd, drph & Suk-Jin Hong, dds, phd
Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the laboratory remineralization effects of a dentifrice with bamboo salt and NaF on artificial caries-like enamel lesions, at both the surface and deep areas. Methods: Early dental caries lesions were formed by treating bovine enamel samples for 48 hours at 37°C with a demineralization solution (pH 5.0) containing 0.1 M lactic acid, 0.2% Carbopol 907, and 50% saturated calcium phosphate tribasic. pH cycling was then performed by immersing the samples in dentifrice slurry for 2 minutes every 8 hours per day, and in demineralization solution for 4 hours and mixed saliva for the remaining time period. The mixed saliva consisted of 50% human saliva and 50% artificial saliva. The surface hardness and the level of mineral surface alterations were analyzed using a hardness tester and transversal microradiography, among negative control (fluoride free), positive control (sodium fluoride 1100 ppm, Crest Cavity Protection), and test dentifrice (3.0% bamboo salt with sodium fluoride 1,000 ppm) groups. Results: Test and positive control groups significantly increased the level of the surface hardness and decreased mineral loss of the artificial caries-like enamel lesions compared to the negative control (P< 0.05). The test dentifrice also significantly decreased the lesion depth compared to the other two groups (P< 0.05). (Am J Dent 2012;25:9-12).
Mail: Prof. Suk-Jin Hong, Department of Preventive and Public Health Dentistry, Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University, School of Dentistry, 77 Yongbong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 501-757, Republic of Korea. E-mail: email@example.com
Guglielmo Campus, dds, phd, Maria Grazia Cagetti, dds, phd, Nadia Spano, cs, phd, Stefania Denurra, cs, phd, Fabio Cocco, cs, phd, Maurizio Bossù, dds, phd, Maria Ignazia Pilo, cs, phd, Gavino Sanna, cs, phd & Franklin GarcÍa-Godoy, dds, ms, phd
Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the fluoride concentration in enamel after the use of different fluoride products and 48 hours after the cessation of fluoride use. Methods: 16 enamel slabs were divided and treated for 15 days as following: Group A, with an amine fluoride toothpaste and mouthrinse (1400 and 250 mg/L-1, respectively); Group B, with an amine fluoride toothpaste (1400 mg/L-1) and mouthrinse without fluoride; Group C, with a sodium fluoride toothpaste (1400 mg/L-1) and mouthrinse (250 mg/L-1). Chemical biopsy and multiple means were used to determine fluoride concentration. The data were statistically analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (P< 0.05). Results: After 15 days of fluoride product use, Group A samples had the highest fluoride uptake (0.19 µg mm-2) (P< 0.05). 48 hours after the interruption of fluoride product usage, a higher fluoride concentration was found in Group A samples. Although all fluoride products led to an enamel uptake, amine fluoride products promoted the most effective long-term uptake. (Am J Dent 2012;25:13-16).
Mail: Dr. Guglielmo Campus, Dental Institute, University of Sassari, Viale San Pietro 43/C I-07100 Sassari, Italy. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Chiara Ottavia Navarra, dds, phd, Cecilia Goracci, dds, phd, Lorenzo Breschi, dds, phd, Alessandro Vichi, dds, phd, Gabriele Corciolani, dds, phd, Milena Cadenaro, dds, phd & Marco Ferrari, md, dds, phd
Abstract: Purpose: To assess the degree of conversion (DC) at different levels of a resin-based luting agent used with different commercial posts. Methods: A resin-based luting agent (Variolink II) was light-cured in a simulated dowel space in combination with different fiber posts: GC Fiber Post (GC), DT Light Safety Lock (SL), RelyX Fiber Post (RX), Reforpost (RE), DT Light Post Illusion (LPI), FRC Postec Plus (FP), Radix (RA), Snowpost (SP), Dentin Post X (DP), Macrolock Illusion (MI), and Composipost (CP). After 24 hours, DC was assessed through micro-Raman analysis at the coronal, middle, and apical thirds. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey test were used for post-hoc comparisons (P< 0.05). Results: The results demonstrated that the post-type, dowel space level, and between-factor interaction were statistically significant (P< 0.001). Differences in DC were observed at different depths for RX, RE, LPI, SL, DP, MI and CP, decreasing from the coronal to the apical third. Although the resin-based luting agent should be able to polymerize in absence of light, a higher DC was found following light irradiation (with a decreasing effect from the coronal to the apical third). (Am J Dent 2012;25:17-20).
Mail: Prof. Milena Cadenaro, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Trieste, Piazza Ospedale 1, 34129 Trieste, Italy. E-mail: email@example.com
Yiming Li, dds, msd, phd, Sean Lee, dds, Joni Stephens, rdh, eds, Luis R. Mateo, ma, Yun Po Zhang, phd, dds(hon) & William DeVizio, dmd
Abstract: Purpose: To investigate whether the long-term use (6 months) of an arginine-calcium carbonate-MFP toothpaste would affect calculus formation and/or gingivitis when compared to a calcium carbonate-MFP toothpaste. Methods: This was a double-blind clinical study. Eligible adult subjects (120) entered a 2-month pre-test phase of the study. After receiving an evaluation of oral tissue and a dental prophylaxis, the subjects were provided with a regular fluoride toothpaste, a soft-bristled adult toothbrush with instructions to brush their teeth for 1-minute twice daily (morning and evening) for 2 months. The subjects were then examined for baseline calculus using the Volpe-Manhold Calculus Index (VMI) and gingivitis using the Löe-Silness Gingival Index (GI), along with an oral tissue examination. Qualifying subjects were randomized to two treatment groups: (1) Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief toothpaste containing 8.0% arginine, 1450 ppm MFP and calcium carbonate (Test group), or (2) Colgate Cavity Protection toothpaste containing 1450 ppm MFP and calcium carbonate (Control group). Subjects were stratified by the VMI score and gender. After a dental prophylaxis (VMI=0), the subjects entered a 6-month test phase. Each received the assigned toothpaste and a soft-bristled adult toothbrush for home use with instructions of brushing teeth for 1 minute twice daily (morning and evening). The examinations of VMI, Löe-Silness GI and oral tissues were conducted after 3 and 6 months. Prior to each study visit, subjects refrained from brushing their teeth as well as eating and drinking for 4 hours. Results: 99 subjects complied with the study protocol and completed the 6-month test phase. No within-treatment comparison was performed for the VMI because it was brought down to zero after the prophylaxis at the baseline of the test phase. For the Löe-Silness GI, subjects of the Test group exhibited a significant difference from baseline at the 3- and 6-month examinations. The 3-month Löe-Silness GI of the Control group was significantly different from that of the baseline; however, its 6-month Löe-Silness GI was not statistically significantly different from the baseline values. After 3 and 6 months, there were no significant differences between the Test and Control groups with respect to the mean VMI scores; there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to the Löe-Silness GI results after 3 and 6 months of product use. (Am J Dent 2012;25:21-25).
Mail: Dr. Yiming Li, Center for Dental Research, Loma Linda University School of Dentistry, 24876 Taylor Street, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
and induce mineral precipitation
Zhejun Wang, dds, phd, Tao Jiang, dds, phd, Salvatore Sauro, dds, phd, Yining Wang, dds, phd,
Wenzhong Xing, dds, phd, Shanshan Liang, dds, phd, Yue Sa, dds, msd, Chengfei Zhang, dds, phd, Ya Shen, dds, phd & Markus Haapasalo, dds, phd
Abstract: Purpose: To examine the laboratory dentin tubules occlusion and mineral precipitation capability of two potassium salts-containing desensitizing toothpastes. Methods: 40 dentin disks were obtained and divided into four groups, including artificial saliva (AS), distilled water (DW), Sensodyne Freshmint (SF) and Colgate Sensitive (CS). Dentin permeability measurement was performed after EDTA etching, initial brush, 3-day brush, 7-day brush and citric acid challenge, respectively. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) was used to monitor the variation of mineral content before and after treatments. The ultra-morphology of dentin surface was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate tubule occlusion. Results: The two potassium salts-containing desensitizing toothpastes significantly reduced dentin permeability to less than 40% after 7-day treatment (P< 0.05). The ATR-FTIR analysis showed increase of the intensity of the phosphate peak after a 7-day brushing period using both of the tested toothpastes. However, the dentin permeability significantly increased and the intensity of phosphate peak decreased after acid etching for all groups. The SEM examination revealed partially occluded dentin tubules after toothpaste treatments, but after the acid challenge the tubules were opened again. (Am J Dent 2012;25:26-30).
Mail: Prof. Yining Wang, The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) & Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School & Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, PR China. E-mail: email@example.com
with antimicrobial agents for the prevention of dentin caries
Shingo Shibata, dds, Toshiyuki Suge, dds, phd, Tomoko Kimura, dds, phd, Kunio Ishikawa, phd
& Takashi Matsuo, dds, phd
Abstract: Purpose: This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of the SiF solution with the addition of antibacterial agents on a Streptococcus mutans biofilm. Methods: Various antibacterial SiF solutions were prepared by adding chlorhexidine, cetylpyridinium chloride, isopropyl methylphenol, or epigallocatechin gallate. Hydroxyapatite pellets treated with several SiF solutions were immersed in BHI inoculated with S. mutans standardized suspension. The number of S. mutans cells adhered to each pellet was evaluated. Results: SiF with the addition of CPC was the most effective for reducing the adherence of bacteria and inhibiting the formation of biofilm, showing the same level as AgF, In contrast, the addition of other antibacterial agents to SiF reduced the original antibacterial activity of SiF solution. (Am J Dent 2012;25:31-34).
Mail: Dr. Toshiyuki Suge, Department of Conservative Dentistry, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3-18-15 Kuramoto, Tokushima 770-8504, Japan. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
RogÉrio Goulart da Costa, dds, ms, Eduardo Christiano Caregnatto De Morais, dds, ms,
Edson Alves Campos, dds, ms, phd, Milton Domingos Michel, phd, Carla Castiglia Gonzaga, dds, phd & Gisele Maria Correr, dds, ms, phd
Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the root fracture strength of human single-rooted premolars restored with customized fiberglass post-core systems after fatigue simulation. Methods: 40 human premolars had their crowns cut and the root length was standardized to 13 mm. The teeth were endodontically treated and embedded in acrylic resin. The specimens were distributed into four groups (n=10) according to the restorative material used: prefabricated fiber post (PFP), PFP+accessory fiber posts (PFPa), PFP+unidirectional fiberglass (PFPf), and unidirectional fiberglass customized post (CP). All posts were luted using resin cement and the cores were built up with a resin composite. The samples were stored for 24 hours at 37°C and 100% relative humidity and then submitted to mechanical cycling. The specimens were then compressive-loaded in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute until fracture. The failure patterns were analyzed and classified. Data was submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α= 0.05). Results: The mean values of maximum load (N) were: PFP - 811.4 ± 124.3; PFPa - 729.2 ± 157.2; PFPf - 747.5 ± 204.7; CP - 762.4 ± 110. Statistical differences were not observed among the groups. All groups showed favorable restorable failures. Fiberglass customized post did not show improved fracture resistance or differences in failure patterns when compared to prefabricated glass fiber posts. (Am J Dent 2012;25:35-38).
Mail: Dr. Gisele Maria Correr, Master’s Program in Clinical Dentistry, Positivo University, Rua Pedro Viriato Parigot de Souza, 5300, Campo Comprido, 81280-330, Curitiba, PR, Brazil. E-mail: email@example.com
D. Tagreed Altaei, msc, phd
Abstract: Purpose: To determine the laboratory and clinical efficacy of lavender oil in the treatment of recurrent aphthous ulceration (RAU). Methods: This was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study performed firstly to treat the induced ulcers by different methods in experimental animals (rabbits) treated with lavender oil or placebo. Clinical and histological healing was established by measuring the area of the ulcer and inflammation levels in each test group. Secondly, safety/toxicity; the median lethal dose (LD50) was studied in albino mice, and dermal irritation test was performed by primary irritation to the skin and measured by a patch-test technique on the intact skin of the albino rabbit. Thirdly, antibacterial effect; lavender oil was screened against bacteria obtained from swab specimen of human subjects’ RAU using disc diffusion method. Fourthly, clinical study; 115 subjects (mean age 38 years, mean weight 75 kg) were divided into two groups of subjects topically treated with lavender oil or placebo. The clinical efficacy was assessed by inflammation level, erythema, edema, ulcer duration, ulcer size, mean area under the curve of ulcer area, healing time, and associated pain intensity and reduction. Results: Animals treated with lavender oil showed a significant ulcer size reduction, increased rate of mucosal repair, and healing within 3 days of treatment compared to baseline and placebo groups [2-3 days (90%), 4 days (10%)] (P= 0.001). The intraperitoneal LD50 value in mice was 6.5 gm/kg; clinical dermal irritation test showed no sign of irritation in the tested products. Lavender oil showed a broad antibacterial activity against all tested strains; it exhibited significant inhibition on tested bacteria where the value of zone of inhibition ranged from 14.5-24 mm vs Streptomycin (25 µg/ disc) 12-22 ± 0.5 mm; MIC was > 6.4-36 mg/ml. RAU patients treated with lavender oil showed a significant reduction in inflammation level, ulcer size, healing time, from 2-4 days [2 days (40%), 3 days (50%), 4 days (10%)], and pain relief mostly from the first dose, compared to baseline and placebo. No side effects were reported. (Am J Dent 2012;25:39-43).
Mail: Dr. D. Tagreed Altaei, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Hawler Medical University, 100 Metry - near Rizgary Hospital, Erbil City, Kurdistan, Northern Iraq, Iraq. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
in non-cavitated occlusal surfaces: Clinical study with total validation
of the sample
Camilo Abalos, dds, md, phd, AsunciÓn Mendoza, dds, md, phd, Amparo Jimenez-Planas, dds, md, phd, Elena Guerrero, dds, dd, phd, Antonio Chaparro, dds, md, phd & Franklin GarcÍa-Godoy, dds, ms
Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the clinical performance of a laser fluorescence device in detecting enamel caries in non-cavitated occlusal surfaces. Methods: The sample included 96 first and second permanent molars, selected according to the criteria of Ekstrand: 44 not suspected of having dentin caries (score: 0–2) and 52 under suspicion (score: 3–4). Once measured by laser fluorescence, all teeth were validated by fissurotomy (gold standard). To avoid ethical questions, the 44 teeth (score: 0–2) used were to serve as abutments for a fixed dental prostheses. Following fissurotomy, the 52 teeth with suspected caries were treated with resin composite restorations. Kruskall-Wallis statistical analysis (P<0.05) was used. Results: Laser fluorescence showed an area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve of Az = 0.803 for enamel caries. The cut-off point with the highest sensitivity and specificity was 15, with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.97 and 0.63, respectively. Values under 10 indicated healthy teeth. (Am J Dent 2012;25:44-48).
Mail: Dr. Camilo Abalos, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Seville, C/Avicena s/n, 41009, Seville, Spain. E-mail: email@example.com
Howard W. Roberts, dmd, ms & David H. Pashley, dmd, phd
Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate if hydrostatic pulpal pressure plays a role in reducing microleakage. Methods: Uniform Class 5 preparations were accomplished on human molars with one margin on root dentin. Prepared teeth were randomly placed in one of three groups: (1) Hydrostatic pressure simulation at 20 cm pulpal pressure; (2) Hydrostatic pressure simulation but no pressure applied (positive control); and (3) Conventional microleakage method. Specimens were subjected to 24 hours methylene blue dye, sectioned, and microleakage assessed as a function of microleakage length versus entire preparation wall length using a traveling microscope. Results: Hydrostatic pressure specimens demonstrated less gingival wall microleakage than the control groups while no difference was found between occlusal preparation walls. (Am J Dent 2012;25:49-53).
Mail: Dr. Howard W. Roberts, Dental Residency Flight Commander, 81 DS/SGD, 606 Fisher Street, Keesler AFB, MS 39534, USA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Dorien Lefever, msc, Nikolaos Perakis, dmd, Miguel Roig, phd, Ivo Krejci, dmd, phd
& Stefano Ardu, dmd, phd
Abstract: Purpose: To determine the changes in surface gloss of different composite materials after laboratory toothbrushing simulation. Methods: 36 specimens were fabricated for each material and polished with 120-, 220-, 500-, 1200-, 2400- and 4000-grit SiC abrasive paper, respectively. Gloss measurements were made with a glossmeter (Novocurve) prior to testing procedures and then subjected to simulated toothbrushing for 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes by means of an electric toothbrush with a pressure of 2N while being immersed in a 50 RDA toothpaste slurry. Four supplementary samples per group were analyzed under SEM immediately after polishing procedures and four samples after 60 minutes simulated toothbrushing in order to evaluate the causes of the gloss decrease. The tested resin composite materials were Filtek Supreme XTE, Durafill, HRi Enamel Plus, Miris 2, Empress Direct, Venus Diamond, Gradia Direct, Clearfil Photo Posterior and G-aenial. Natural enamel represented the control group. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal Wallis and Tukey post-hoc test, with a level of significance set at 0.05. Results: Resin composite initial gloss values ranged from 68.9 to 100.5 at baseline to 10.6 to 62.6 after 1 hour of brushing. Highest gloss values were obtained by Filtek Supreme XTE, followed by Empress Direct and Durafill. Lowest values were obtained by Clearfil Photoposterior, Miris 2, Enamel HRi and Venus Diamond. Natural enamel was the only substrate to maintain its gloss throughout the brushing procedure (110.4 after 60 minutes). SEM analysis revealed different patterns of surface degradation depending on the composite material. (Am J Dent 2012;25:54-58).
Mail: Dr. Dorien Lefever, Division of Cariology & Endodontology, Dental School, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. E-mail: Dorien.Lefever@unige.ch
with overlapping causes
Kaitlin A. Spiegel, ms, rd, ldn & Carole A. Palmer, edd, rd, ldn
Abtract: Purpose: To review and summarize the current literature on the issues contributing to the increased prevalence of childhood obesity and dental caries and to provide direction and guidelines for dental practitioners as well as other health professionals for interventions that may help stem the tide of both conditions. Methods: Through a review of the recent literature, the most recent research on the nutritional issues in common to both childhood caries and childhood obesity are reported, as well as clinical interventions which are considered appropriate in dental practice. Results: Factors contributing to both childhood caries and childhood obesity are psychosocial as well as nutritional. Family patterns, lifestyle issues, and school-based issues all play a role. The literature shows that many of the same issues contribute to both childhood caries and childhood obesity, and that it is within the scope of responsibility of dental practitioners to provide guidance for the prevention and reduction of both. (Am J Dent 2012;25:59-64).
Mail: Dr. Carole A. Palmer, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, 1 Kneeland St., Boston, MA 02111, USA. E-mail: email@example.com